Wednesday and Thursday evenings we focused on four values: black, dark gray, light gray and white. First we hand-toned the paper to a midpoint value using compressed charcoal rubbed into the paper with a rag. This established the light gray. White values were achieved by working "reductively" (i.e. erasure). The approach is to focus on individual values one at a time to establish movement through similarity. In other words, place all white shapes and values in first. Then fill in the black shapes and later move onto the two shades of gray. Once the value patterns are establish, modeling (using dark and light gradations to create volume) may be applied. Drawing by Courtney Hopkins.